Your Full Name:102/103Lab 5: MeiosisINSTRUCTIONS:and submit it via the Assignments Folder by the date listed in the CourseSchedule (under Syllabus).To conduct your laboratory exercises, use the Laboratory Manual located underCourse Content. Read the introduction and the directions for each exercise/experimentcarefully before completing the exercises/experiments and answering the questions.Save your Lab 5 Answer Sheet in the following format: LastName_Lab5 (e.g.,Smith_Lab5).You should submit your document as a Word (.doc or .docx) or Rich Text Format(.rtf) file for best compatibility.© eScience Labs, LLC 2014Pre-Lab Questions1. Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis.2. What major event occurs during interphase?Experiment 1: Following Chromosomal DNA Movementthrough MeiosisData Tables and Post-Lab AssessmentTrial 1 – Meiotic Division Beads Diagram:Prophase I© eScience Labs, LLC 2014Metaphase IAnaphase ITelophase IProphase IIMetaphase IIAnaphase IITelophase ICytokinesis© eScience Labs, LLC 2014Trial 2 – Meiotic Division Beads Diagram:Prophase IMetaphase IAnaphase ITelophase IProphase IIMetaphase IIAnaphase IITelophase I© eScience Labs, LLC 2014CytokinesisPost-Lab Questions1. What is the ploidy of the DNA at the end of meiosis I? What about at the end of meiosisII?2. How are meiosis I and meiosis II different?© eScience Labs, LLC 20143. Why do you use non-sister chromatids to demonstrate crossing over?4. What combinations of alleles could result from a crossover between BD and bdchromosomes?© eScience Labs, LLC 20145. How many chromosomes were present when meiosis I started?6. How many nuclei are present at the end of meiosis II? How many chromosomes are ineach?© eScience Labs, LLC 20147. Identify two ways that meiosis contributes to genetic recombination.8. Why is it necessary to reduce the number of chromosomes in gametes, but not in othercells?© eScience Labs, LLC 20149. Blue whales have 44 chromosomes in every cell. Determine how many chromosomesyou would expect to find in the following:a.i.Sperm Cell:a.ii.Egg Cell:a.iii.Daughter Cell from Mitosis:© eScience Labs, LLC 2014a.iv.Daughter Cell from Meiosis II:10. Research and find a disease that is caused by chromosomal mutations. When does themutation occur? What chromosomes are affected? What are the consequences?11. Diagram what would happen if sexual reproduction took place for four generations usingdiploid (2n) cells.© eScience Labs, LLC 2014Experiment 2: The Importance of Cell Cycle ControlData Tables and Post-Lab Assessment126.96.36.199.5.Post-Lab Questions1. Record your hypothesis from Step 1 in the Procedure section here.2. What do your results indicate about cell cycle control?3. Suppose a person developed a mutation in a somatic cell which diminishes theperformance of the body’s natural cell cycle control proteins. This mutation resulted in© eScience Labs, LLC 2014cancer, but was effectively treated with a cocktail of cancer-fighting techniques. Is it possiblefor this person’s future children to inherit this cancer-causing mutation? Be specific whenyou explain why or why not.4. Why do cells which lack cell cycle control exhibit karyotypes which look physicallydifferent than cells with normal cell cycle.5. What are HeLa cells? Why are HeLa cells appropriate for this experiment?Experiment 1:FollowingChromosomal DNAMovement throughMeiosisIn this experiment, youwill model the movementof the chromosomesthrough meiosis I and II tocreate gametes.© eScience Labs, LLC 2014Materials2 Sets of Different Colored Pop-it® Beads (32 of emay be any color)8 5-Holed Pop-it® Beads (used as centromeres)Procedure:Part 1: Modeling Meiosiswithout Crossing OverAs prophase I begins, thereplicated chromosomescoil and condense…1.Build a pair ofreplicated,homologouschromosomes. 10beads should beused to create eachindividual sisterchromatid (20beads perchromosome pair).Two five-holedbeads representeach centromere.To do this…© eScience Labs, LLC 2014Figure 3: Bead set-up. The blue beadsrepresent one pair of sister chromatidsand the black beads represent a secondpair of sister chromatids. The black andblue pair are homologous.a.Start with20 beads ofthe samecolor tocreate yourfirst sisterchromatidpair. Fivebeads mustbe snappedtogether foreach of thefourdifferentstrands.Twostrandscreate thefirstchromatid,and twostrandscreate thesecondchromatidwith a 5holed beadat thecenter ofeachchromatid.This createsan “I”© eScience Labs, LLC 2014shape.b.Connect the“I” shapedsisterchromatidsby the 5holed beadsto createan “X”shape.c.Repeat thisprocessusing 20new beads(of adifferentcolor) tocreate thesecondsisterchromatidpair.2.Assemble a secondpair of replicatedsister chromatids;this time using 12beads, instead of20, per pair (sixbeads per eachcomplete sisterchromatid strand).3.Pair up thehomologouschromosome pairscreated in Step 1and 2. DO NOTSIMULATE© eScience Labs, LLC 2014CROSSINGOVER IN THISTRIAL. You willsimulate crossingover in Part 2.4.Configure thechromosomes asthey would appearin each of thestages of meioticdivision (prophaseI and II, metaphaseI and II, anaphase Iand II, telophase Iand II, andcytokinesis).5.Diagram thecorrespondingimages for eachstage in thesections titled“Trial 1 – MeioticDivision BeadsDiagram”. Be sureto indicate thenumber ofchromosomespresent in each cellfor each phase.© eScience Labs, LLC 2014Figure 4: Second set of replicatedchromosomes.6.Disassemble thebeads used in Part1. You will need torecycle these beadsfor a secondmeiosis trial inSteps 8 – 13.Part 1 – Meiotic DivisionBeads DiagramProphase IMetaphase IAnaphase ITelophase IProphase IIMetaphase IIAnaphase II© eScience Labs, LLC 2014Telophase IICytokinesisPart 2: Modeling Meiosiswith Crossing Over7.Build a pair ofreplicated,homologouschromosomes. 10beads should beused to create eachindividual sisterchromatid (20beads perchromosome pair).Two five-holedbeads representeach centromere.To do this…a.Start with20 beads ofthe samecolor tocreate yourfirst sisterchromatidpair. Fivebeads mustbe snappedtogether foreach of thefourdifferentstrands.Two© eScience Labs, LLC 2014strandscreate thefirstchromatid,and twostrandscreate thesecondchromatidwith a 5holed beadat thecenter ofeachchromatid.This createsan “I”shape.b.Connect the“I” shapedsisterchromatidsby the 5holed beadsto createan “X”shape.c.Repeat thisprocessusing 20new beads(of adifferentcolor) tocreate thesecondsisterchromatid© eScience Labs, LLC 2014pair.8.Assemble a secondpair of replicatedsister chromatids;this time using 12beads, instead of20, per pair (sixbeads per eachcomplete sisterchromatid strand).Snap each of thefour pieces into anew five-holedbead to completethe set up.9.Pair up thehomologouschromosomescreated in Step 8and 9.10.SIMULATECROSSINGOVER. To do this,bring the twohomologous pairsof sisterchromatidstogether (creatingthe chiasma) andexchange an equalnumber of beadsbetween the two.This will result inchromatids of thesame originallength, there willnow be new© eScience Labs, LLC 2014combinations ofchromatid colors.11.Configure thechromosomes asthey would appearin each of thestages of meioticdivision (prophaseI and II, metaphaseI and II, anaphase Iand II, telophase Iand II, andcytokinesis).12.Diagram thecorrespondingimages for eachstage in the sectiontitled “Trial 2 Meiotic DivisionBeads Diagram”.Be sure to indicatethe number ofchromosomespresent in each cellfor each phase.Also, indicate howthe crossing overaffected the geneticcontent in thegametes from Part1versus Part 2.Part 2 – Meiotic DivisionBeads Diagram:Prophase IMetaphase I© eScience Labs, LLC 2014Anaphase ITelophase IProphase IIMetaphase IIAnaphase IITelophase IICytokinesiExperiment 2: The Importance of Cell Cycle ControlSome environmental factors can cause genetic mutations which result in alack of proper cell cycle control (mitosis). When this happens, the possibilityfor uncontrolled cell growth occurs. In some instances, uncontrolled growthcan lead to tumors, which are often associated with cancer, or other biologicaldiseases.In this experiment, you will review some of the karyotypic differences whichcan be observed when comparing normal, controlled cell growth andabnormal, uncontrolled cell growth. A karyotype is an image of the completeset of diploid chromosomes in a single cell.Procedure© eScience Labs, LLC 2014Materials*Computer Access*Internet Access1.*You Must ProvideBegin by constructing a hypothesis to explain what differences youmight observe when comparing the karyotypes of human cells whichexperience normal cell cycle control versus cancerous cells (whichexperience abnormal, or a lack of, cell cycle control). Record yourhypothesis in Post-Lab Question 1.Note: Be sure to include what you expect to observe, and why you thinkyou will observe these features. Think about what you know aboutcancerous cell growth to help construct this information2.Go online to find some images of abnormal karyotypes, and normalkaryotypes. The best results will come from search terms such as“abnormal karyotype”, “HeLa cells”, “normal karyotype”, “abnormalchromosomes”, etc. Be sure to use dependable resources which havebeen peer-reviewed3.Identify at least five abnormalities in the abnormal images. Then, list anddraw each image in the Data section at the end of this experiment. Dothese abnormalities agree with your original hypothesis?Hint: It may be helpful to count the number of chromosomes, count thenumber of pairs, compare the sizes of homologous chromosomes, lookfor any missing or additional genetic markers/flags, etc.Data1.2.3.© eScience Labs, LLC 20144.5.Click here to download and solve a few questions.© eScience Labs, LLC 2014
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